The project Time Tower
What is the relationship between time and gravity? The mission of the project Time Tower is to give the final and 100% scientifically verified answer to this question. Till now, in spite of different physical measurements, there is no the direct proof of gravitational time dilation. For the details see «The scientific basis» in the presentation. Thus you can’t control gravitation without the exact knowledge whether there is the gravitational time dilation (the postulate about the temporal process in the General Theory of Relativity) or the gravitational time acceleration (the hypothesis of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin).
The project Time Tower will provide an experimental comparison of the values of the atomic oscillation frequencies (the direct comparison of the synchronized atomic clocks readings – the counters of the quantum oscillations) at different gravitational potentials. The result of this experiment will give a definite answer to the question - what is the true rate of time in the field of gravity. As we expect, it will confirm the gravitational time acceleration.
The project Time Tower will answer 3 questions:
The idea of the experiment is to carry out the comparison of the clocks readings of two high precision atomic clocks functioning synchronously at different heights (on the top and the ground floors of a tower or a skyscraper, for example, The Sears Tower in Chicago).
The necessary equipment: two high precision atomic clocks with the measurement accuracy (by the value of the atomic oscillations) about 10^-15 sec.; two comparators that are capable of comparing the clocks by the frequencies and the readings with an accuracy of less than 0,1 nanosecond/24 hours; installation cable.
See the below figure - the principal technical scheme.
Total budget of the project Time Tower (the cost of the equipment) – $ 1 mln.
The duration of the experiment – 8 months, the equipment must be installed at the top and at the bottom of a tower (500 m height), two measurement periods - the atomic clocks will change each other at the top and at the bottom after first 4 months of the measurement.
The atomic clocks are connected with the comparators by special cables. The comparators might be placed between the atomic clocks or with atomic clocks (at the top and at the bottom).
The aim of the comparator A is to carry out the comparison of the ratio between two atomic oscillation frequencies (from the top and the bottom atomic clocks). The aim of the comparator B is to carry out the comparison of the clocks readings – the comparison of the number of quantum oscillations registered by the counters of the atomic clocks (at the top and at the bottom). We expect that the comparator A will show approximately the same value (the ratio of the atomic frequencies) that will probably fluctuate near some average value. The indication of the comparator B will increase linearly with time due to the cumulative effect.
Let’s look at the main theoretical expectations of the experimental results according to the different theoretical models of gravitation: the General Theory of Relativity (GTR), Newton, The Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin (ESY).
All three models (GTR, Newton, ESY) predict the gravitational shift of frequencies (the red shift effect).
So, the comparator A should register that the frequency of the bottom atomic clock fbottom is lower than the frequency of the top clock ftop by the relative value equal to:
ftop/fbottom -1 = gH/c^2 (1)
g = 9,8 m/sec. (approximate value) – the free fall acceleration, с = 3×10^8 m/sec. (approximate value) – the speed of light. The expected value is equal to:
gH/c^2 = 5,4×10^-14 (approximate value) (2)
The red shift effect (1) was verified with high accuracy in many experiments, from the Pound–Rebka experiment to the GPS experiments that always confirm the gravitational shift of frequencies. So we expect that the comparator A will confirm that the atomic frequency of the bottom clock will be lower by the relative value about 5,4×10^-14.
But what about the comparator B, what result it will give? It depends on the correctness of the interpretation of the red shift effect – see the details in the «The scientific basis» in the presentation.
The red shift effect might consist of two effects.
1-st effect: the change of the atomic oscillation frequency of the atomic clock (the rate of time course measured by the value of the counter of the quantum oscillations) when the atomic clock moves from the top to the bottom.
2-d effect: the change of the frequency of the electromagnetic signal when it moves from the bottom to the top.
The sum of these two effects is equal to the value of the red shift (1).
According to the GTR, a frequency of an electromagnetic signal does not change when a signal moves in a gravitational field. Thus the red shift effect (1) means that the bottom clock goes slower by the same relative value:
(∆Ttop - ∆Tbottom)/∆Ttop = gH/c^2 (3)
Therefore, according to the GTR, the bottom atomic clock will go slower than the top atomic clock by the value about 4,7 nanoseconds per 24 hours. During the period of time this difference will increase cumulatively – 0,14 microseconds per month. See the table below.
There is another interpretation of the red shift effect according to the Newtonian model of gravitation.
From its point an electromagnetic wave (light), moving upwards, loses its energy and thus its frequency decreases. The change of a frequency is equal to:
From this point, the rate of time course of the top clock is the same as the rate of time course of the bottom clock, but the comparator A will register the gravitational shift of the frequency (1). Because the gravitational shift of the frequency is caused only by the change of the frequency of the signal when the signal moves upwards (4).
Finally, there is the third view and the interpretation of the red shift according to the model of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin (ESY).
The frequency of an electromagnetic signal, moving in a gravitational field, changes considerably (3 times more than in Newton’s model) by the relative value equal to:
The additional change of the frequency is caused by the change of Planck’s constant. And the bottom atomic clock will go faster than the top clock by the relative value equal to:
(∆Ttop - ∆Tbottom)/∆Ttop =2gH/c^2 (6)
When the signal from the bottom clock goes upwards, its frequency decreases according to the equation (5) and that is why it is received with a value of the red shift equal to (1) at the top.
Anyway, in spite of the result, the project Time Tower will provide the measurement data for the answer to the question of the true rate of time in a gravitational field – and that is of great importance to the physics of gravitation. This result will become the part of the history of science and the project Time Tower will get the fame more than the famous Hafele-Keating experiment. We expect that the citation index of the result of this project will exceed the citation index of the Hafele-Keating experiment in several times.
Moreover, the project Time Tower will give the answer to the question whether there is the correlation or not between the value of Planck’s constant and the gravitational potential. The project Time Tower will increase the rating of any university that will switch to the project as the scientific partner.
What if we are wrong (if ESY is false)? In this case the experimental measurements will confirm the GTR’s postulate about the gravitational time dilation to be true. And this experiment will be more famous (will get a higher citation index) than the Hafele-Keating experiment because its results will be more precise.
The project Time Tower will be carried out with the on-line translation of the measurement process via internet. The scientific problem is of great importance and the project Time Tower will attract many curious minds to visit the internet site of the project. Besides we expect that the project will attract the TV channels (BBC, Discovery etc.) for the TV show dedicated to the scientific problem. We hope that it will be interesting for the sponsorship and commercial ads – and will decrease the financial risk of the potential venture partner.
A curious scientific expert might pose a question: "But what about other experiments and measurements? The Pound–Rebka experiment, the red shift effect, the orbital GPS relativistic effects, the Shapiro time delay effect, the modern researches of Chou-Hume-Rosenband-Wineland, Poli-Oates-Gill-Tino etc.? Don't they prove gravitational time dilation?" We say - no, they don't prove gravitational time dilation. All of them do not prove gravitational time dilation because of several very important scientific reasons. All these measurements concern the red shift effect but not the rate of time. Very important point is that the GTR states that energy of a photon and frequency of a photon do not change during the motion of a photon in the gravitational field. The problem is that there is no experimental data proving that the photon’s energy and the photon's frequency are not changed during the motion of the photon in the field of gravity. Gravitational time dilation is not scientifically verified also – there is no direct physical evidence of gravitational time dilation. Energy of a photon and frequency of a photon might be changed during the motion of a photon in the gravitational field. In this case the gravitational time dilation is false and the gravitational time acceleration is true.
According to the general theory of relativity (GTR), time goes slower in the field of gravity. The GTR uses several arguments to prove the postulate about gravitational time dilation - but all of such arguments can’t be the direct evidence of time dilation in the field of gravity, they are only indirect proof in the GTR’s paradigm.
We insist that till now there is no even one physical fact as the direct experimental or measurement data that can prove gravitational time dilation. Gravitational time dilation is just the hypothetical physical effect of GTR that does not have a valid measurement till the present time. And the opposite effect (ESY) is possible.
Our formulation of the new physical effect (ESY) is the following.
The Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin: an atomic frequency (atomic oscillation frequency) is increased in a gravitational field - time goes faster in the field of gravity and the value of Planck’s constant decreases with the increase of the absolute value of the gravitational potential. According to the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin the gravitational time acceleration means that the rate of time is higher near a large mass.
The Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin is crucial for understanding gravity and gravitation control technology. All zero gravity systems will be based on ESY.
Without an exact physical measurement (the project Time Tower), gravitational time dilation has the status of the theoretical hypothesis as the opposite effect - gravitational time acceleration (ESY).
Both hypotheses (GTR’s or ESY) are based on their theoretical models, each of them has its theoretical and physical arguments. Only a valid measurement of a direct comparison of the clocks readings in conditions of different gravitational potentials will provide a physical fact (direct physical evidence) proving gravitational time dilation or gravitational time acceleration.
In 2014 our team declared the scientific competition. $ 100 000 prize will be paid to any expert if this expert proves the gravitational time dilation (according to the GTR) by providing a scientific paper of any research team containing the direct measurements of time rate at the conditions of different gravitational potentials. Are you ready to win the prize? Give us such scientific paper and we will pay. From the position of common sense it’s obvious that if our team is ready to pay such money – the scientific question is not so simple and that the problem deserves to be looked at in detail. We are ready to take responsibility for our scientific position and our words and we are ready to meet the potential objections. If you (your expert) say: «gravitational time dilation is true» but you refuse to request for the money prize – your are not responsible for your words and expertise. Our scientific team is ready to take responsibility for our scientific position. And we expect from you the same.
The following contains the deep look at the arguments (according to the GTR) for the gravitational time dilation that are not verified to be the scientific physical fact. Download the scientific articles to get more details.
Soloshenko M., Yanchilin V.: «The problem of the true rate of time course in the field of gravity: time dilation or time acceleration in the gravitational field - what effect is valid? What physical measurements and arguments we really have, and do they satisfy the strictly scientific point of view?»
The success of the project Time Tower will provide the great scientific breakthrough in the physics of gravity and will give the key for the gravitation control technology and its implementation in different zero gravity devices that will be realized at the next Phases - see the presentation.